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Freshmen at two midwestern institutions of higher education participated in a bibliographic instruction experiment. A three-element model was used that considered the interaction of library tools, styles or modes of instruction, and a theory of learning. Comparisons were made between lecture and programmed instruction text in the teaching of bibliographic indexes and basic catalog card information. The learning hierarchy of Robert M. Gagne was used for three levels of learning: factual, conceptual, and application or problem solving. Results indicate a superiority of programmed instruction at the factual and problem-solving levels and the necessity for further experimentation.

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