Date of Original Version
The DC‐8 mission of September 27, 1991, was designed to sample air flowing into Typhoon Mireille in the boundary layer, air in the upper tropospheric eye region, and air emerging from the typhoon and ahead of the system, also in the upper troposphere. The objective was to find how a typhoon redistributes trace constituents in the West Pacific region and whether any such redistribution is important on the global scale. The boundary layer air (300 m), in a region to the SE of the eye, contained low mixing ratios of the tracer species O3, CO, C2H6, C2H2, C3H8, C6H6 and CS2 but high values of dimethylsulfide (DMS). The eye region relative to the boundary layer, showed somewhat elevated levels of CO, substantially increased levels of O3, CS2 and all nonmethane hydrocarbons (NMHCs), and somewhat reduced levels of DMS. Ahead of the eye, CO and the NMHCs remained unchanged, O3 and CS2 showed a modest decrease, and DMS showed a substantial decrease. There was no evidence from lidar cross sections of ozone for the downward entrainment of stratospheric air into the eye region; these sections show that low ozone values were measured in the troposphere. The DMS data suggest substantial entrainment of boundary layer air into the system, particularly into the eye wall region. Estimates of the DMS sulphur flux between the boundary layer and the free troposphere, based on computations of velocity potential and divergent winds, gave values of about 69 μg S m−2 d−1 averaged over a 17.5° grid square encompassing the typhoon. A few hours after sampling with the DC‐8, Mireille passed over Oki Island, just to the north of Japan, producing surface values of ozone of 5.5 ppbv. These O3 levels are consistent with the low tropospheric values found by lidar and are more typical of equatorial regions. We suggest that the central eye region may act like a Taylor column which has moved poleward from low latitudes. The high‐altitude photochemical environment within Typhoon Mireille was found to be quite active as evidenced by significant levels of measured gas phase H2O2 and CH3OOH and model‐computed levels of OH.
Newell, R. E., et al. (1996), Atmospheric sampling of Supertyphoon Mireille with NASA DC‐8 aircraft on September 27,1991, during PEM‐West A, J. Geophys. Res., 101(D1), 1853–1871, doi: 10.1029/95JD01374. Available at: https://doi.org/10.1029/95JD01374