Document Type


Date of Original Version



As climate change will likely lead to more of a human presence in the higher latitudes, it is important to consider how well our safety-critical positioning systems work near the poles. The orbits of the GPS (and other GNSS) preclude satellites with high elevation in these regions; hence, it is clear that at least vertical accuracy is impacted. This paper characterizes this positioning performance loss by developing lower bounds on GDOP as a function of receiver latitude. Examples with actual ephemeris data are included for comparison to the bounds.