Cooperative output regulation of heterogeneous multi-agent systems with a leader of bounded inputs

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In this study, the cooperative output regulation problem for heterogeneous multi-agent systems is addressed by considering a leader dynamics subject to bounded (possibly non-zero, persistent, and time varying) inputs. Compared to many existing works with a leader of zero input, using such a leader dynamics will facilitate realisation of more diverse and sophisticated tracking trajectories for cooperative output regulation control. However, it also poses a challenge to pursue exact output regulation performance. To this end, a new two-layer hierarchical design framework is proposed. This framework consists of an upper-layer cooperative estimator for estimating the leader's state information in finite time, and a lower-layer distributed output regulator to achieve exact output regulation performance. Both finite-time estimation and asymptotic output regulation performance are analysed using the Lyapunov function method, and the associated solvability conditions are established as a set of linear matrix inequalities plus linear matrix equations. Simulation studies are also included to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed approach.

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IET Control Theory and Applications