Distributed Cooperative Control of Multiple Hybrid Energy Storage Systems in a DC Microgrid Using Consensus Protocol

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Hybrid energy storage system (HESS) consisting of battery and supercapacitor (SC) is an effective approach to alleviate voltage stability problems brought by the fluctuation of renewable resources in a dc microgrid. This paper proposes a novel distributed control scheme for multiple HESSs based on a leaderless consensus protocol to realize the power splitting between batteries and SCs and thus regulate the dc bus voltage. Without assigning leaders among the batteries and SCs, each SC or battery has equal priority in participating in voltage or state of charge (SOC) regulation using only neighboring information exchange instead of global communication. This distributed approach makes the system robust against any physical failure or communication fault only if the remaining communication network is connected. Consensus for the state variable associated with the battery SOC, the SC terminal voltage, and the dc average bus voltage are all achieved in this scheme, and thus the voltage quality and the energy storage lifetime can be improved. In addition, the small-signal stability of a four-HESS system is investigated, and the impact of the control parameters on the system is analyzed. Simulations and experimental studies are conducted to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed control scheme in an islanded dc microgrid.

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IEEE Transactions on Industrial Electronics