Date of Original Version
Spoofing is the common term used for describing the intentional broadcasting of false radio frequency signals intended to disrupt and mislead systems that depend on accurate position, navigation, and timing information provided by Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSS). Spoofing is an increasingly recognized threat garnering increased interest from researchers and users, both military and civilian. This paper presents a GNSS spoof detection algorithm that exploits the geometric distribution of a horizontal array of GNSS receiver antennae and the geometric configuration of visible navigation satellites. Using a Neyman-Pearson hypothesis testing formulation, a spatial correlation test is developed that can accurately and dependably detect a GNSS spoofing event. This paper develops the generalized likelihood ratio test using standard statistical models of the GNSS range measurements and maximum likelihood estimates of the unknown variables. An analysis is presented showing the performance effects of the number of receivers used, internal receiver clock bias estimation, unknown antenna array orientation, and temporal and spatial locations of the detector. Simulations were conducted using a GNSS simulator and receiver combination to further substantiate theoretical claims. Furthermore, comparisons to similar prior work using position solutions shows a marked improvement in performance.
Radin, David, Swaszek, Peter F., Seals, Kelly C., Hartnett, Richard J., "GNSS Spoof Detection Based on Pseudoranges from Multiple Receivers," Proceedings of the 2015 International Technical Meeting of The Institute of Navigation, Dana Point, California, January 2015, pp. 657-671.