Improvement of TDOA position fixing using the likelihood curvature

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A conventional multilateration is a two-step process where, in the first step the time difference of arrivals (TDOA) of a signal at multiple sensors are estimated, and in the second step, these TDOAs are used in some position fixing technique to estimate the location of an emitter. Several estimators have been proposed over the years for the estimation of the TDOAs. Many techniques have been proposed for position fixing as well. Much of the research on position fixing has been focused on obtaining a simplified closed form solution. For the unknown deterministic signal model, Stein had derived the maximum-likelihood estimator (MLE) for the TDOA between two sensors, which is the peak location of the cross-correlation function. Since the asymptotic variance of an MLE approaches the Cramer-Rao lower bound (CRLB), which is the inverse of the negative of the expected value of the curvature of the log-likelihood function, using this as a motivation, we propose a weighted least squares type position fixing technique where the weights are computed from the curvature of the log-likelihood function. © 1991-2012 IEEE.

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IEEE Transactions on Signal Processing