Document Type


Date of Original Version



Civil and Environmental Engineering


Fluoride and arsenic are hazardous inorganic contaminants due to associated health risks and relatively higher levels of occurrence in groundwater. Metal-organic frameworks, (MOFs) with their high surface area, versatile building blocks and numerous active sites, are a novel approach to fluoride and arsenic uptake. This review presents the different types of MOFs for fluoride and arsenic removal along with a study of dynamic breakthrough times and cost analysis. MOF performances are based on a variety of synthesis methods, notable among which solvothermal one is more described. However, all research works concluded that MOFs have poor yield compared to conventional adsorbents. But, their high adsorption capacity, tailored chemical structure and ionic uptake of fluoride and arsenic make them a more favorable option than many other adsorbents. The cost of different MOFs usually varies between 0.1 and 5 US$/g depending on the synthesis routes.

Publication Title, e.g., Journal

Separation & Purification Reviews