Document Type


Date of Original Version



Computer Science and Statistics


For a user-centered deployment of electric vehicle supply equipment (EVSE) infrastructure, it is vital to understand electric vehicle user charging behavior. This study identifies user behavioral patterns by analyzing data from more than 7000 charging stations in Canada, comparing residential vs. public Level 2, and public direct current fast (DCFC) vs. public Level 2 charging. A novel algorithm, CHAODA, was applied to identify differences between DCFC and other Level 2 charging options. Through a multivariate and holistic methodology, various patterns emerge, identifying differences in the utilization and seasonality of different EVSE types. The study provides evidence of an “EV Duck Curve” that amplifies the baseline of the power production “Duck Curve,” confirming future challenges for grid stability. Implementations of this study can support future EVSE infrastructure planning efforts and help improve the overall service of electric vehicle supply equipment and grid stability.

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Creative Commons License

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License.


Noah M. Daniels is affiliated with the Department of Computer Science and Statistics.

Tim Jonas and Gretchen Macht are affiliated with the Department of Mechanical, Industrial and Systems Engineering.


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