Two canonically aerobic foraminifera express distinct peroxisomal and mitochondrial metabolisms
Date of Original Version
Certain benthic foraminifera thrive in marine sediments with low or undetectable oxygen. Potential survival avenues used by these supposedly aerobic protists include fermentation and anaerobic respiration, although details on their adaptive mechanisms remain elusive. To better understand the metabolic versatility of foraminifera, we studied two benthic species that thrive in oxygen-depleted marine sediments. Here we detail, via transcriptomics and metatranscriptomics, differential gene expression of Nonionella stella and Bolivina argentea, collected from Santa Barbara Basin, California, USA, in response to varied oxygenation and chemical amendments. Organelle-specific metabolic reconstructions revealed these two species utilize adaptable mitochondrial and peroxisomal metabolism. N. stella, most abundant in anoxia and characterized by lack of food vacuoles and abundance of intracellular lipid droplets, was predicted to couple the putative peroxisomal beta-oxidation and glyoxylate cycle with a versatile electron transport system and a partial TCA cycle. In contrast, B. argentea, most abundant in hypoxia and contains food vacuoles, was predicted to utilize the putative peroxisomal gluconeogenesis and a full TCA cycle but lacks the expression of key beta-oxidation and glyoxylate cycle genes. These metabolic adaptations likely confer ecological success while encountering deoxygenation and expand our understanding of metabolic modifications and interactions between mitochondria and peroxisomes in protists.
Publication Title, e.g., Journal
Frontiers in Marine Science
Powers, Christopher, Fatma Gomaa, Elizabeth B. Billings, Daniel R. Utter, David J. Beaudoin, Virginia P. Edgcomb, Colleen M. Hansel, Scott D. Wankel, Helena L. Filipsson, Ying Zhang, and Joan M. Bernhard. "Two canonically aerobic foraminifera express distinct peroxisomal and mitochondrial metabolisms." Frontiers in Marine Science 9, (2022). doi: 10.3389/fmars.2022.1010319.