Routes of administration for nanocarriers

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Date of Original Version



Over the past several decades, there has been an increase in the development of nanoparticle-based systems (e.g., nanocarriers) for drug delivery using a wide variety of administration routes and targeted delivery to tissue and organs. This chapter serves as an overview for the most common nanocarrier delivery routes, including parenteral (intravenous, intramuscular, intraperitoneal, and subcutaneous), pulmonary, nasal, oral, transdermal, and ocular routes. The basic physiology of the given organs and tissues involved in the aforementioned administration routes is discussed along with nanocarrier formulations and applications, obstacles and opportunities, fate of nanocarriers upon delivery, physiological barriers to overcome, delivery devices, challenges in delivery, and potential future applications. Each section of the chapter serves as a brief overview and more comprehensive reviews of each have been mentioned, when applicable. An extensive listing of every nanocarrier type is beyond the scope of this chapter; however, some common and FDA-approved formulation options have been included in a tabulated form.

Publication Title, e.g., Journal

Nanoparticles for Biomedical Applications: Fundamental Concepts, Biological Interactions and Clinical Applications