Native Oxides Formed on Single-Crystal Germanium by Wet Chemical Reactions
Date of Original Version
The preparation of stable oxide films on single-crystal germanium surfaces by a room temperature “wet” chemical oxidation technique is described. Characterization by IR-transmission, ellipsometry, x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, Rutherford backscattering, and electron microscopy show that such films are dense, uniform, and free of defects. The oxides are a mixture of two germanium dioxide phases both of which have a cristobalite atomic configuration. Unlike hexagonal germania, these films are stable in both water and hydrofluoric acid. They can be totally converted to the hexagonal dioxide phase by heat-treatment in either oxygen or nitrogen ambient at 600°C. The growth kinetics, mechanisms and morphologies of the oxides formed by this method are presented. Preliminary evaluation of the electronic character of the oxide/semiconductor interface is also included. © 1988, The Electrochemical Society, Inc. All rights reserved.
Journal of the Electrochemical Society
Gregory, O. J., L. A. Pruitt, and P. J. Stiles. "Native Oxides Formed on Single-Crystal Germanium by Wet Chemical Reactions." Journal of the Electrochemical Society 135, 4 (1988): 923-929. doi:10.1149/1.2095836.