Deformation characteristics of low carbon steel subjected to dynamic impact loading

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The effects of impact loading on changes in microstructure have been studied in low carbon steel. Low to moderate shock loading tests have been carried out on steel specimens using a single stage gas gun with projectile velocities ranging from 200 to 500. m/s. Stress history at the back face of the target specimen and projectile velocity prior to impact were recorded via manganin stress gauges and velocity lasers, respectively. A Johnson-Cook constitutive material model was employed to numerically simulate the material behavior of low carbon steel during impact and obtain the particle velocity at the impact surface as well the pressure distribution across the specimens as a function of impact duration. An analytical approach was used to determine the twin volume fraction as a function of blast loading. The amount of twinning within the α-ferrite phase was measured in post-impact specimens. A comparison between experimental and numerical stress histories, and analytical and experimental twin volume fraction were used to optimize the material and deformation models and establish a correlation between impact pressure and deformation response of the steel under examination. Strain rate controlled tensile tests were carried out on post-impact specimens. Results of these tests are discussed in relation to the effects of impact loading on the yield and ultimate tensile strength as well as the hardening and strain energy characteristics. © 2011 Elsevier B.V.

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Materials Science and Engineering A