Date of Original Version
Male-specific bacteriophage (MSB) densities were determined in animal and human fecal wastes to assess their potential impact on aquatic environments. Fecal samples (1,031) from cattle, chickens, dairy cows, dogs, ducks, geese, goats, hogs, horses, seagulls, sheep, and humans as well as 64 sewerage samples were examined for MSB. All animal species were found to harbor MSB, although the great majority excreted these viruses at very low levels. The results from this study demonstrate that in areas affected by both human and animal wastes, wastewater treatment plants are the principal contributors of MSB to fresh, estuarine, and marine waters.
Calci, K. R., Burkhardt, W., III, Watkins, W. D., & Rippey, S. R. (1998). Occurrence of Male-Specific Bacteriophage in Feral and Domestic Animal Wastes, Human Feces, and Human-Associated Wastewaters. Applied and Environmental Microbiology, 64(12), 5027-5029. Retrieved from https://aem.asm.org/content/64/12/5027
Available at: https://aem.asm.org/content/64/12/5027