Differential effects of pay-it-forward and direct-reciprocity on prosocial behavior
Date of Original Version
This research conceptualizes the distinction between pay-it-forward and direct-reciprocity tendency from a construal level perspective, and examines such differences in three studies. Study 1 develops Pay-It-Forward Tendency scale and validates it in both the U.S. and India. Study 2 uses the scale to gather data from software engineers in both the U.S. and India, showing that Indian software professionals have a lower pay-it-forward (vs. direct-reciprocity) tendency, which in turn leads to more pay-it-forward behavior, whereas American software professionals have similar levels of pay-it-forward and direct-reciprocity tendency. Consistent with the construal level account, Study 3 shows that individuals high (vs. low) in direct-reciprocity have lower preferences for charitable causes with delayed (vs. immediate) impact, whereas those high and low in pay-it-forward show equal preferences for these causes. Similarly, donation intention-behavior consistency is positively related to pay-it-forward, but negatively associated with direct-reciprocity. Theoretical contributions and managerial implications of these findings are discussed.
Publication Title, e.g., Journal
Journal of Business Research
Yang, Zhiyong, Narayan Janakiraman, Mehdi T. Hossain, and Douglas B. Grisaffe. "Differential effects of pay-it-forward and direct-reciprocity on prosocial behavior." Journal of Business Research 121, (2020): 400-408. doi: 10.1016/j.jbusres.2018.11.050.