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Date of Original Version



Biomedical and Pharmaceutical Sciences


Protein/subunit vaccines often require external adjuvants to induce protective immunity. Due to the safety concern of chemical adjuvants, physical adjuvants were recently explored to boost vaccination. Physical adjuvants use physical energies rather than chemicals to stimulate tissue stress and endogenous danger signal release to boost vaccination. Here we present the safety and potency of non-invasive radiofrequency treatment to boost intradermal vaccination in murine models. We show non-invasive radiofrequency can increase protein antigen-induced humoral and cellular immune responses with adjuvant effects comparable to widely used chemical adjuvants. Radiofrequency adjuvant can also safely boost pandemic 2009 H1N1 influenza vaccination with adjuvant effects comparable to MF59-like AddaVax adjuvant. We find radiofrequency adjuvant induces heat shock protein 70 (HSP70) release and activates MyD88 to mediate the adjuvant effects. Physical radiofrequency can potentially be a safe and potent adjuvant to augment protein/subunit vaccine-induced humoral and cellular immune responses.

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Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License.