Population pharmacokinetics of cyclosporine in cardiopulmonary transplant recipients

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A population pharmacokinetic analysis of cyclosporine (CsA) was performed, and the influence of covariates on CsA oral clearance and relative bioavailability was investigated. Data from 48 recipients of heart-lung (n = 21) or single (n = 18) or double (n = 9) lung transplant were included in the study. Patients received oral CsA as either a conventional formulation (Sandimmune™) or a micro-emulsion (Neoral™). Steady-state CsA concentrations were measured before and at approximately 2 and 6 hours after the morning dose of CsA at the end of weeks 1, 2, 3, 4, 13, 26, 39, and 52 posttransplantation. A total of 1004 CsA concentration observations were analyzed using mixed effects-modeling (NONMEM). A 1-compartment pharmacokinetic model and first-order oral absorption were used to fit the data. The absorption rate constants were fixed at 0.25 L/h for Sandimmune and 1.35 L/h for Neoral formulations. Oral clearance (CL/F) was estimated to be 22.1 L/h (95% confidence intervals [CI] 19.5-24.7 L/h). Itraconazole (ITRA), cystic fibrosis (CF), and weight (WT) were identified as significant covariates for CL/F according to the final model: CL/F = 22.1 - 11.3 × ITRA + 23.5 × CF + 0.129 × (WT - 58.7) L/h; where ITRA = 1 if the patient was taking concomitant itraconazole, otherwise 0; CF = 1 if the patient had cystic fibrosis, otherwise CF = 0; and WT is patient weight in kilograms. The relative oral bioavailability of Sandimmune to Neoral was 0.82. The bioavailability of both preparations increased during the first month posttransplantation. Age, gender, and type of transplant (single, double, or heart-lung) were not identified as significant covariates for CsA clearance. The population pharmacokinetic model developed identified some sources of variability in CsA pharmacokinetics; however, an appreciable degree of variability is still present in this patient population. Copyright © 2005 by Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.

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Therapeutic Drug Monitoring