Cosmetic applications of glucitol-core containing gallotannins from a proprietary phenolic-enriched red maple (Acer rubrum) leaves extract: inhibition of melanogenesis via down-regulation of tyrosinase and melanogenic gene expression in B16F10 melanoma cells
Date of Original Version
The red maple (Acer rubrum) is a rich source of phenolic compounds which possess galloyl groups attached to different positions of a 1,5-anhydro-d-glucitol core. While these glucitol-core containing gallotannins (GCGs) have reported anti-oxidant and anti-glycative effects, they have not yet been evaluated for their cosmetic applications. Herein, the anti-tyrosinase and anti-melanogenic effects of a proprietary phenolic-enriched red maple leaves extract [Maplifa™; contains ca. 45% ginnalin A (GA) along with other GCGs] were investigated using enzyme and cellular assays. The GCGs showed anti-tyrosinase activity with IC50 values ranging from 101.4 to 1047.3 μM and their mechanism of tyrosinase inhibition (using GA as a representative GCG) was evaluated by chelating and computational/modeling studies. GA reduced melanin content in murine melanoma B16F10 cells by 79.1 and 56.7% (at non-toxic concentrations of 25 and 50 μM, respectively), and its mechanisms of anti-melanogenic effects were evaluated by using methods including fluorescent probe (DCF-DA), real-time PCR, and western blot experiments. These data indicated that GA was able to: (1) reduce the levels of reactive oxygen species, (2) down-regulate the expression of MITF, TYR, TRP-1, and TRP-2 gene levels in a time-dependent manner, and (3) significantly reduce protein expression of the TRP-2 gene. Therefore, the anti-melanogenic effects of red maple GCGs warrant further investigation of this proprietary natural product extract for potential cosmetic applications.
Archives of Dermatological Research
Ma, Hang, Jialin Xu, Nicholas A. DaSilva, Ling Wang, Zhengxi Wei, Liangran Guo, Shelby L. Johnson, Wei Lu, Jun Xu, Qiong Gu, and Navindra P. Seeram. "Cosmetic applications of glucitol-core containing gallotannins from a proprietary phenolic-enriched red maple (Acer rubrum) leaves extract: inhibition of melanogenesis via down-regulation of tyrosinase and melanogenic gene expression in B16F10 melanoma cells." Archives of Dermatological Research 309, 4 (2017): 265-274. doi:10.1007/s00403-017-1728-1.