Anti-neuroinflammatory effects of a food-grade phenolic-enriched maple syrup extract in a mouse model of Alzheimer’s disease
Date of Original Version
Objectives: Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a growing global health crisis exacerbated by increasing life span and an aging demographic. Convergent lines of evidence, including genome-wide association studies, strongly implicate neuroinflammation in the pathogenesis of AD. Several dietary agents, including phenolic-rich foods, show promise for the prevention and/or management of AD, which in large part, has been attributed to their anti-inflammatory effects. We previously reported that a food-grade phenolic-enriched maple syrup extract (MSX) inhibited neuroinflammation in vitro but whether these effects are translatable in vivo remain unknown. Herein, we assessed MSX's ability to attenuate early neuroinflammation in a transgenic mouse model of AD. Methods: The effects of MSX on AD-related neuroinflammation was evaluated by orally administering MSX (100 and 200 mg/kg/day for 30 days) to the 3xTg-AD mouse model of AD. The expression of inflammatory markers in mouse brains were analyzed with LC-MS/MS with SWATH acquisition. Results: 3xTg-AD mice dosed orally with MSX have decreased expression of several inflammatory proteins, including, most notably, the AD risk-associated protein ‘triggering receptor expressed on myeloid cells-2’ (TREM2), and stimulator of interferon genes TMEM173, and suppressor of cytokine signaling-6 (SOCS6). However, this decrease in inflammation did not coincide with a decrease in pathogenic amyloid generation or lipid peroxidation. Discussion: These data demonstrate that oral administration of this maple syrup derived natural product reduces key neuroinflammatory indices of AD in the 3xTg-AD model of AD. Therefore, further studies to investigate MSX's potential as a dietary intervention strategy for AD prevention and/or management are warranted.
Publication Title, e.g., Journal
Rose, Kenneth N., Benjamin J. Barlock, Nicholas A. DaSilva, Shelby L. Johnson, Chang Liu, Hang Ma, Robert Nelson, Fatemeh Akhlaghi, and Navindra P. Seeram. "Anti-neuroinflammatory effects of a food-grade phenolic-enriched maple syrup extract in a mouse model of Alzheimer’s disease." Nutritional Neuroscience 24, 9 (2021): 710-719. doi: 10.1080/1028415X.2019.1672009.