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Biomedical and Pharmaceutical Sciences


Influenza poses a huge threat to global public health. Influenza vaccines are the most effective and cost-effective means to control influenza. Current influenza vaccines mainly induce neutralizing antibodies against highly variable globular head of hemagglutinin and lack cross-protection. Vaccine adjuvants have been approved to enhance seasonal influenza vaccine efficacy in the elderly and spare influenza vaccine doses. Clinical studies found that MF59 and AS03-adjuvanted influenza vaccines could induce cross-protective immunity against non-vaccine viral strains. In addition to MF59 and AS03 adjuvants, experimental adjuvants, such as Toll-like receptor agonists, saponin-based adjuvants, cholera toxin and heat-labile enterotoxin-based mucosal adjuvants, and physical adjuvants, are also able to broaden influenza vaccine-induced immune responses against non-vaccine strains. This review focuses on introducing the various types of adjuvants capable of assisting current influenza vaccines to induce cross-protective immunity in preclinical and clinical studies. Mechanisms of licensed MF59 and AS03 adjuvants to induce cross-protective immunity are also introduced. Vaccine adjuvants hold a great promise to adjuvant influenza vaccines to induce cross-protective immunity.

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Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License.