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Biomedical and Pharmaceutical Sciences


Chemical conjugates between sodium cellulose sulfate (CS), displaying contraceptive and HIV-entry inhibiting properties, and nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NRTIs) (3′-azido-2′,3′-dideoxythymidine (AZT), 3′-fluoro-2′,3′-dideoxythymidine (FLT), or 2′,3′-dideoxy-3′-thiacytidine (3TC)) were designed to simultaneously provide contraceptive and anti-HIV activity. Two linkers, acetate and succinate, were used to conjugate the nucleoside analogs with CS. The conjugates containing cellulose sulfate-acetate (CSA) (e.g., AZT–CSA and FLT–CSA) were found to be more potent than CS and other conjugates (e.g., AZT–succinate–CS, and FLT–succinate–CS). The presence of both sulfate and the acetate groups on cellulose were critical for generating maximum anti-HIV activity. In addition to showing equal potency against wild-type and multidrug resistant HIV-1, the AZT–CSA conjugate displayed significant contraceptive activity in an animal model, providing the initial proof-of-concept for the design and synthesis of dual-activity compounds based on these combinations.

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