Chaucer and the Game of Love: An Analysis of the Book of the Duchess, the House of Fame and the Parliament of Fowles
Examining the courtly love tradition as a viable phenomenon in
Middle English literature is an extremely fascinating encounter with
the pulse of fourteenth-century society. There has been a great deal
of scholarly work done on both the meaning of courtly love and Chaucer's
use of courtly conventions. The critics who deal with the courtly love
tradition can be classified into basically four groups: (1) those who
see it as a viable literary tradition; (2) those who view it as a
historical fact; (3) those who say it is non-existent; and (4) those who
see it as a game. The game of love can be considered serious "pleye," and
it is in this sense that I examine Chaucer's use of the courtly love tradition.
While reading Chaucer's "The Book of the Duchess", "The House of
Fame", and "The Parliament of Fowles", I realized that Chaucer was engaging
me as a participant in a game. I also discovered that to concentrate on
the game structures was at least one way of understanding the total meaning
of the poems. The three major game elements explored in these poems
are: (1) the presentation of the fiction of courtly love as a game itself;
(2) the "play" with artistic conventions of presentation; and as a
result (3) the "play" with the expectations of his audience for certain
traditional conventions. "The Book of the Duchess" appears to be a tightly
structured poem where the content and the "pleye" are perfectly suited.
In "The House of Fame" there seems to bea"μlayer" in search of a "game,"
and, as such, the poem remains elusive. In "The Parliament of Fowles"
Chaucer seems to be playing a variety of games and expands the vision he
had in both "The Book of the Duchess" and "The House of Fame". This investigation
suggests that Chaucer as poet was playing with the implications of
the poetic process itself, with his material, and with his audience.