Document Type

Article

Date of Original Version

2017

Abstract

In addition to cholesterol-lowering capabilities, statins possess anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory effects. We sought to quantify the real-world impact of different statin exposure patterns on clinical outcomes in Staphylococcus aureus bacteremia. We conducted a retrospective cohort study among hospitalized patients with positive S. aureus blood cultures receiving appropriate antibiotics within 48 h of culture collection (Veterans Affairs hospitals, 2002 to 2013). Three statin exposure groups were compared to nonusers: pretreated statin users initiating therapy in the 30 days prior to culture and either (i) continuing statin therapy after culture or (ii) not continuing after culture, and (iii) de novo users initiating at culture. Nonusers included patients without statins in the year prior to culture through discharge. Propensity score-matched Cox proportional hazards regression models were developed. We were able to balance significantly different baseline characteristics using propensity score matching for pretreated without continuation (n = 331), pretreated with continuation (n = 141), and de novo (n = 177) statin users compared to nonusers. We observed a significantly lower 30-day mortality rate (hazard ratio [HR], 0.46; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.25 to 0.84; number needed to treat [NNT], 10) among pretreated and continued statin users, while protective effects were not observed in de novo (HR, 1.04; 95% CI, 0.60 to 1.82; NNT, undefined) or pretreated but not continued (HR, 0.92; 95% CI, 0.64 to 1.32; NNT, 47) users. In our national cohort study among patients with S. aureus bacteremia, continuation of statin therapy among incident statin users was associated with significant beneficial effects on mortality, including a 54% lower 30-day mortality rate.

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