Date of Award
Master of Arts in Marine Affairs
During the mid-sixties, shipping lines operating on most of the world's main trade routes have abandoned the break-bulk handling methods employed since 1900. The two main drawbacks that are association with traditional handling methods are: too much time is spent by vessels in port because of the limited speed of manual handling systems; and high labor costs. Containerization is one means to permit vessels to spend much more time at sea earning revenue; and it also reduces the dependencies of the vessel on dockside work forces.
Donlon, Stephen E., "Comparative Costs of Competitive Shipping" (2011). Theses and Major Papers. Paper 67.