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In this study, the authors numerically simulate roll vortices (rolls) generated by the inflection-point instability in the hurricane boundary layer (HBL). The approach is based on embedding a two-dimensional high-resolution single-grid roll-resolving model (SRM) at selected horizontal grid points of an axisymmetric HBL model. The results from a set of idealized experiments indicate that the mixed-layer height is an important factor affecting the magnitude of the roll velocities and the structure of the internal waves triggered in the stably stratified layer above. This study reveals the important difference between the roll-induced cross-roll (nearly radial) and along-roll (nearly azimuthal) momentum fluxes: while the cross-roll momentum flux is well correlated to the cross-roll mean wind shear, the along-roll momentum flux is typically not correlated with the along-roll mean wind shear. Therefore, the commonly used K theory in the boundary layer parameterizations cannot reasonably capture the vertical distribution of the roll-induced along-roll momentum flux. Moreover, the authors find that the rolls induce more significant changes in the mean radial wind profile than in the mean azimuthal wind profile. Specifically, rolls reduce the inflow near surface, enhance the inflow at upper levels, and increase the inflow-layer height. Based on a linear dynamical HBL model, the authors find that the impact of rolls on the mean radial wind profile is essentially due to their redistribution effect on the mean azimuthal momentum in the HBL
Gao, K. and Ginis, I. (2016). On the equilibrium-state roll vortices and their effects in the hurricane boundary layer. Journal of the Atmospheric Sciences 73(3): 1205-1222. doi: 10.1175/JAS-D-15-0089.1
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