Document Type

Article

Date of Original Version

2015

Abstract

Low-density polyethylene (LDPE) passive samplers were deployed in upland surface waters and the overlying atmosphere during May and June 2012, to determine the transport and trends of freely dissolved and gaseous organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) along altitudinal gradients in mountain regions in south and southeast Brazil. Gaseous OCP concentrations were dominated by hexachlorobenzene (3.0 to 29 pg.m-3) and endosulfans (Ʃ= α-endosulfan + β-endosulfan + endosulfan sulphate, 170 to 260 pg.m-3), whereas freely dissolved endosulfans were significantly higher than all other OCPs (p < 0.001). The presence of some target pesticides at the highest elevation sites indicated their efficient high-altitude transport from regional sources. Air-water exchange gradients indicated net deposition of most volatile and recently banned OCPs (e.g., HCB, endosulfan) over Brazilian mountains. Moreover, the exposure of these sites to large-scale continental airflows with varying source contributions may partly explain the atmospheric deposition of selected OCPs over upland freshwaters at tropical and subtropical mountains sites in Brazil. These findings, couple with LDPE passive air and water sampling measurements, point out the potential inputs from distant sources of semi-volatile chemicals to the two high-altitude sites.

Share

COinS