# A model of the antecedents and outcomes of work-family conflict as moderated by social support

#### Abstract

This study integrates findings from the social support and work-family conflict literature into a common model in an attempt to better understand the relationship between work and family. The proposed model explicitly distinguishes between work interfering with family (work$\to$family conflict) and family interfering with work (family$\to$work conflict). The antecedents and outcomes of both types of work-family conflict are examined, as well as whether different types and sources of social support moderate those relationships.^ Participants were 261 alumni of a northeastern United States university who had received either an undergraduate or graduate degree from the university sometime during the years from 1975-1985. Data was collected with questionnaires which were mailed to the alumni at their homes.^ Results indicated that work$\to$family conflict and family$\to$work conflict are both conceptually and empirically distinct constructs. As was predicted, work antecedents were positively related to work$\to$family conflict and family antecedents to family$\to$work conflict. Findings also indicated that outcomes of both types of work-family conflict are both affective and behavioral. The results of the study did not largely uphold instrumental social support as a moderator of the relationships between work and family characteristics and work-family conflict. Emotional social support from both work and family sources, on the other hand, was found to be a moderator of the relationships between work-family conflict and work and family outcomes. The major findings of the hypotheses tested are discussed, along with implications for future research and practice. ^