Environmental factors and the demand for nonconsumptive wildlife recreation: A time allocation approach
Each year, residents of the United States devote substantial resources to nonconsumptive uses of wildlife, or nonconsumptive wildlife recreation. However, despite the prevalence of nonconsumptive wildlife recreation, little is known about environmental and policy factors that may influence demand for these activities. Those works that address the impacts of such factors exist outside of the economics literature, and offer little to those interested in economic demand and value. This lack of research is due, at least in part, to the fact that nonconsumptive wildlife recreation often occurs either near the home or during multi-purpose recreational trips, placing such behavior beyond the empirical reach of traditional travel cost models.^ This research assesses the influence of environmental and policy factors on the demand for nonconsumptive wildlife recreation. Given the difficulty linking single-purpose travel with single species, we develop a non-market demand methodology based upon data easily linked to single species in specific environments: observable wildlife viewing time. More generally, the presented methodology offers a means to model demand for single sites visited as part of multi-purpose trips or "vacations", by modeling the demand for time allocation at each site. The presented empirical application involves wildlife viewing time at multi-purpose sites. This application compares the demand for time spent viewing individual species across multi-exhibit zoological parks, allowing estimation of the impact of exhibit, zoo, and other characteristics on the demand for viewing time.^ The dissertation is composed of three manuscripts. The first manuscript develops a utility-theoretic time allocation model, and emphasizes theoretical aspects of the model. The second manuscript presents a simple, linear model of wildlife viewing time, aimed at the wildlife policy audience. The third manuscript uses the model developed in the first manuscript to estimate the demand for wildlife viewing time, the effects of exogenous factors on demand, and welfare impacts. The analysis shows that environmental and policy factors have significant effects on wildlife viewing, the demand for viewing time, and estimated welfare measures. It further demonstrates the ability of time allocation models to estimate demand for activities that occur during multi-purpose trips. ^
Agriculture, Forestry and Wildlife|Economics, General|Economics, Agricultural|Environmental Sciences|Recreation
Robert John Johnston,
"Environmental factors and the demand for nonconsumptive wildlife recreation: A time allocation approach"
Dissertations and Master's Theses (Campus Access).