Morphology and infraciliature of selected species of Tintinnina with a phylogenetic analysis of the Tintinnina based on infraciliature

Richard William Pierce, University of Rhode Island


The infraciliature of 17 tintinnid species from 9 genera is described from protargol-stained specimens. Two new species are described: Favella novaengliae, and Tintinnidium estuariale. The other species described are Acanthostomella norvegica (Daday, 1887) Jorgensen, 1927, Favella panamensis Kofoid and Campbell, 1929, Helicostomella subulata (Ehrenberg, 1833) Jorgensen, 1924, Metacylis angulata Lackey and Balech, 1966, Parafavella denticulata (Ehrenberg, 1840) Kofoid and Campbell, 1929, Parafavella gigantea (Brandt, 1896) Kofoid and Campbell, 1929, Salpingella acuminata (Claparede and Lachmann, 1858) Jorgensen, 1924, Stenosemella oliva (Meunier, 1910), Stenosemella ventricosa (Claparede and Lachmann, 1858) Jorgensen, 1924, Tintinnopsis beroidea Stein, 1867, Tintinnopsis campanula (Ehrenberg, 1840) Daday, 1887, Tintinnopsis parva Merkle 1909, Tintinnopsis platensis Cunha and Fonseca, 1917, Tintinnopsis radix (Imhof, 1886) Brandt, 1907, and Tintinnopsis subacuta Jorgensen, 1899.^ A cladistic analysis was conducted using the infraciliature of these species and 14 species previously described from the literature. This analysis suggests that the suborder Tintinnina as previously described is actually composed of three groups. The genus Tintinnidium, characterized by the presence of ventral organelles and somatic kineties composed of dikinetids, is placed in a new suborder, Tintinnidina. A second new suborder, Salpingellina, is erected for tintinnids with an oblique oral plane, an undifferentiated ventral kinety, and somatic kineties composed of dikinetids. The remaining species in the suborder Tintinnina are united by the presence of somatic kineties composed of monokinetids with an anterior dikinetid, and differentiated ventral kineties.^ The direction of evolution of tintinnids is shown to be opposite that previously hypothesized. Using Strombidinopsis as an outgroup, primitive species are defined as having a kinetome composed of undifferentiated kineties, and kineties composed of dikinetids. The direction of evolution is inferred by the addition of differentiated kineties, and reduction of kinetids within kineties from dikinetids to monokinetids. Arranged in order of increasing specialization are: Tintinnidium, Salpingella, Eutintinnus, Nolaclusilis, and Favella. The remaining tintinnids fall into two groups: Tintinnopsis, Codonella, Codonellopsis, Stenosemella, and Acanthostomella, Parafavella, Helicostomella, Metacylis, Cymatocylis. The main difference between these groups is agglomeration of particles on the lorica of the first group. Within each of these two groups there is increasing differentiation of the kinetome. ^

Subject Area

Biology, Microbiology|Biology, Oceanography

Recommended Citation

Richard William Pierce, "Morphology and infraciliature of selected species of Tintinnina with a phylogenetic analysis of the Tintinnina based on infraciliature" (1996). Dissertations and Master's Theses (Campus Access). Paper AAI9702079.