Nonpoint source (NPS) pollution control and policy analysis: A case study in Jiulong River watershed, southeast China
Current water pollution policies focused mainly on point sources have limited effects on nonpoint source (NPS) pollution control in Jiulong River watershed. To identify alternatives a survey of NPS control policies and practices applied in several countries across the globe has been conducted. Policy instruments employed in the United States, Canada, the European Union (especially the United Kingdom, the Netherlands, and Denmark), and China have been reviewed and compared. Since the characteristics of NPS pollution often requires site-specific approaches, policies and practices from elsewhere should be assessed and adjusted based on the specific natural and socio-economic settings in Jiulong River watershed. As policy target, watershed residents' cooperation and participation are of great importance to the success of these policies. Their environmental awareness and attitude towards pollution control policies play an important role in selecting alternative policies. To better integrate public input to the NPS pollution policy design, A questionnaire survey was conducted to understand watershed residents' knowledge about NPS pollution, their attitudes toward NPS pollution control, preferences of policy instruments, the amount they would be willing to pay for NPS pollution control, and how socio-economic factors (e.g., geographic location, education level and income) affect these aspects. ^ The results of policy analysis indicated that multiple policy instruments, including legislation, compliance mechanisms, financial incentives, technical assistance, education and decision support, have frequently been combined and used to address NPS water pollution issue in the United States, Canada, and European Union. The European Union has applied the most "strict" regulation on NPS pollution, the United States' NPS legislation relies largely on voluntary programs. Although its legislation has not addressed NPS pollution issue in particular, similar to the United States and the European Union, Canada has been provided financial incentives, technical assistance, and education and information support to its land owners to encourage their conservation practices that have positive effects on NPS control. ^ The results suggested that residents of Jiulong River watershed had limited knowledge about NPS pollution. Their attitudes towards NPS pollution control were very positive, they trusted government and would like to support and participate in NPS pollution control. They were willing to change behavior, apply new technologies to achieve the goal of pollution reduction, and were willing to pay for NPS pollution control. The average amount of willingness to pay (WTP) was ¥147 ($22), about 2.5% of the annual per capital net income of rural households in the watershed. In terms of policy instruments, watershed residents preferred education and information support most, followed by legislation and administrative regulations, technical assistance, and financial incentives. For the delivery methods of education information, they favored brochures, forums and lectures. As for financial incentives, they found subsidies and monetary compensation most attractive. While geographic location in the watershed and income level had certain impacts, education level was the main factor affecting watershed residents' knowledge, attitudes, preferences, and willingness to pay for NPS pollution control. ^ Based on the results from policy analysis and public survey, recommendations have been developed to address NPS pollution issue in Jiulong River watershed: develop site-specific NPS regulations to the watershed at the provincial level, with a special focus on limiting fertilizer uses and livestock feeding operations; enhance public education on NPS pollution issue; develop extension programs that provide technical assistance to watershed residents for NPS pollution control; promote coordination across administrative boundaries; build collaboration among environmental and agricultural agencies; establish a watershed-wide management council which can lead and coordinate all the above efforts will make the successful control of NPS pollution in the watershed most promising. (Abstract shortened by UMI.)^
Environmental Management|Environmental Studies|Water Resource Management|Sociology, Public and Social Welfare
"Nonpoint source (NPS) pollution control and policy analysis: A case study in Jiulong River watershed, southeast China"
Dissertations and Master's Theses (Campus Access).