Statistically interacting particles in Ising spin chains
Chapter 1: The statistical mechanics of particles with shapes on a one-dimensional lattice is investigated in the context of the s = 1 Ising chain with uniform nearest-neighbor coupling, quadratic single-site potential, and magnetic field, which supports four distinct ground states: : ↑↓↑↓ ···〉, : ∘ ∘ ···〉, : ↑↑ ··· 〉, : ↑ ∘ ↑ ∘ ··· 〉. The complete spectrum is generated from each ground state by particles from a different set of six or seven species. Particles and elements of pseudo-vacuum are characterized by motifs (patterns of several consecutive site variables). Particles are floating objects that can be placed into open slots on the lattice. Open slots are recognized as permissible links between motifs. The energy of a particle varies between species but is independent of where it is placed. Placement of one particle changes the open-slot configuration for particles of all species. This statistical interaction is encoded in a generalized Pauli principle, from which the multiplicity of states for a given particle combination is determined and used for the exact statistical mechanical analysis. Particles from all species belong to one of four categories: compacts, hosts, tags, or hybrids. Compacts and hosts find open slots in segments of pseudo-vacuum. Tags find open slots inside hosts. Hybrids are tags with hosting capability. In the taxonomy of particles proposed here, 'species' is indicative of structure and 'category' indicative of function. The hosting function splits the Pauli principle into exclusion and accommodation parts. Near phase boundaries, the state of the Ising chain at low temperature is akin to that of miscible or immiscible liquids with particles from one species acting as surfactant molecules. ^ Chapter 2: The s = 1/2 Ising chain with uniform nearest-neighbor and next-nearest-neighbor coupling is used to construct a system of floating particles characterized by motifs of up to six consecutive local spins. The spin couplings cause the assembly of particles which, in turn, remain free of interaction energies even at high density. All microstates are configurations of particles from one of three different sets, excited from pseudo-vacua associated with ground states of periodicities one, two, and four. The motifs of particles and elements of pseudo-vacuum interlink in two shared site variables. The statistical interaction between particles is encoded in a generalized Pauli principle, describing how the placement of one particle modifies the options for placing further particles. In the statistical mechanical analysis arbitrary energies can be assigned to all particle species. The entropy is a function of the particle populations. The statistical interaction specifications are transparently built into that expression. The energies and structures of the particles alone govern the ordering at low temperature. Under special circumstances the particles can be replaced by more fundamental particles with shorter motifs that interlink in only one shared site variable. Structures emerge from interactions on two levels: particles with shapes from coupled spins and long-range ordering tendencies from statistically interacting particles with shapes. ^ Chapter 3: The s = 32 Ising spin chain with uniform nearest-neighbor coupling, quadratic single-site potential, and magnetic field is shown to be equivalent to a system of 17 species of particles with internal structure. The same set of particles (with different energies) is shown to generate the spectrum of the s = ½ Ising chain with dimerized nearest-neighbor coupling. The particles are free of interaction energies even at high densities. The mutual exclusion statistics of particles from all species is determined by their internal structure and encoded in a generalized Pauli principle. The exact statistical mechanical analysis can be performed for thermodynamically open or closed systems and with arbitrary energies assigned to all particle species. Special circumstances make it possible to merge two or more species into a single species. All traits that distinguish the original species become ignorable. The particles from the merged species are effectively indistinguishable and obey modified exclusion statistics. Different mergers may yield the same end-product, implying that the inverse process (splitting any species into subspecies) is not unique. In a macroscopic system of two merged species at thermal equilibrium, the concentrations of the original species satisfy a functional relation governed by their mutual statistical interaction. That relation is derivable from an extremum principle. In the Ising context the system is open and the particle energies depend on the Hamiltonian parameters. Simple models of polymerization and solitonic paramagnetism each represent a closed system of two species that can transform into each other. Here they represent distinguishable traits with different energies of the same physical particle.^
Statistics|Physics, Elementary Particles and High Energy
"Statistically interacting particles in Ising spin chains"
Dissertations and Master's Theses (Campus Access).