Sexual negotiation and the influence of gender and power in heterosexually active men and women

Seth Michael Noar, University of Rhode Island


This study had four main goals: (1) to develop a psychometrically valid condom influence strategy scale (CISS) on a college sample; (2) to examine the relationship of these influence strategies to variables from HIV risk reduction models; (3) to further validate this scale in a sample of at-risk community adults; and (4) to discuss how gender, power, and interpersonal variables such as influence strategies can be integrated into current models of HIV risk reduction. In Study One, a sample of 471 sexually active college students was split in two for exploratory (N = 201) and confirmatory (N = 270) analyses. Principal component analyses (N = 201) suggested a 6-component solution, and a confirmatory factor analysis (N = 270) confirmed this structure, χ2/df ratio = 2.2, CFI = .91, AASR = .05. The data indicated that individuals endorsed 6 strategies to influence partners to use condoms: withholding sex, direct request, seduction, relationship conceptualizing, risk information, and deception. MANOVA results generally indicated that women were more likely to use influence strategies, and, that those with less say regarding condom use were less likely to endorse influence strategies. Correlations and structural equation models generally demonstrated positive relationships between the CISS and a set of transtheoretical predictors (condom self-efficacy, negotiation self-efficacy, condom stage of change) and interpersonal predictors (sexual assertiveness, partner communication, sexual communication). The CISS was also positively related to a measure of condom use. In Study Two, the structure of the CISS was generally confirmed on a sample of 113 at-risk community participants, χ2/df ratio = 2.56, CFI = .85, AASR = .05. This model included pregnancy prevention as an additional influence strategy. Many similarities were found between analyses conducted on the community and college samples, as well as some important differences. Overall results are supportive of 7 strategies that men and women are likely to use in influencing a partner to use a condom, with important differences related to both gender and power. These studies, taken together, are supportive of the importance of influence strategies to condom use. Models of HIV risk should be expanded to include variables that capture the dyadic nature of sexual behavior and the impact of contextual variables. ^

Subject Area

Psychology, Social|Health Sciences, Public Health|Sociology, Individual and Family Studies

Recommended Citation

Seth Michael Noar, "Sexual negotiation and the influence of gender and power in heterosexually active men and women" (2001). Dissertations and Master's Theses (Campus Access). Paper AAI3025553.